立場新聞 Stand News

為何美國政府建議檢討香港單獨關稅區地位?

2018/11/15 — 18:20

2018年11月14日美中經濟與安全審查委員會發佈年度報告,其中第三章第四節特闢香港章節建議美國商務部摘寫報告,檢討現時民用和軍用的高科技輸港貿易,探討因為現時美國把香港和中國內地視為不同關稅區域所帶來對美國出口管制是否足夠的問題;第二項建議與英國、歐盟和台灣成立的跨議會組織進行檢討中國是否履行基本法並制定報告,其中特別需要關注法治、言論自由及集會自由和新聞自由。這兩項建議的原文如下:[1]

“The Commission recommends: Congress direct the U.S. Department of Commerce and other relevant government agencies to prepare an unclassified public report, with a classified annex, examining and assessing the adequacy of U.S. export control policy for dual-use technology as it relates to U.S. treatment of Hong Kong and China as separate customs areas.
Congressional interparliamentary groups engage parliamentarians from the United Kingdom, EU, and Taiwan in a biennial review of China’s adherence to the Basic Law, with specific attention to rule of law, freedom of speech and assembly, and press freedom, and issue a report based on its findings after each review.”[1]

廣告

報告中關於香港的其他內容可參考[2]。可惜大多分析把這份報告獨立理解,而忽略了幾個月前美國就美港政策法的年度報告中有關敏感軍事產品管制的憂慮。因此,若要理解以上的建議,必先了解《美國-香港政策法》有關美國出口香港的管制政策,其中第5713(8)條有關美港商貿政策中聲明美國繼續支持出口香港受COCOM協議管制出口的敏感技術:

“5713 Commerce between US and HK
(8) The US should continue to support access by HK to sensitive technologies controlled under the agreement of the Coordinating Committee for Multilateral Export Controls (commonly referred to as “COCOM”) for so long as the US is satisfied that such technologies are protected from improper use or export.”[3]

廣告

而香港工業貿易署 (2009) 曾發出一份戰略貿易管制通告第3/2009號,內容提及「獲美國批准以個別出口簽證輸往香港的貨物,並不准許轉口往中國內地。即使貨物是供香港公司在內地的附屬公司 ∕業務∕相聯公司使用,此限制亦同樣適用。」[4]

其中譬如有關高端電腦貿易管制,根據美國出口管制規例 (US Export Administrative Regulations),電腦出口管制措施會因應不同的目的地和合成理論效能 (CTP) 而有所分別,現時香港屬第一層目的地,而中國屬第三層目的地,管制有明顯不同。[5]

但今年5月29日美國國會就美港政策法所提出的定期報告(Hong Kong Policy Act Report)指香港的情況令美國關注出口管制貨品的偏差 (diversion of controlled items),其中提及商貿事宜,特別是香港政府並未履行聯合國安全理事會的決議案第2270,2321,2371,2375及2397號,原文如下:

“Export controls: The United States cooperates closely with Hong Kong on strategic trade controls and counter-proliferation initiatives. In December 2017, the U.S. and Hong Kong governments held their annual meeting on counter-proliferation cooperation in the areas of threat assessment, finance, licensing, and enforcement. The Hong Kong government is obligated to implement United Nations sanctions adopted by the Central Government, but has yet to incorporate Security Council resolutions 2270, 2321, 2371, 2375, and 2397 into its Sanctions Ordinance, inhibiting full North Korea sanctions enforcement. The U.S. Department of Commerce, which employs a full-time Export Control Officer to conduct end-use checks, industry outreach, and government liaison work, continues to raise concerns about the diversion of controlled items, including during its annual bilateral discussion about strategic trade controls. The U.S. and Hong Kong governments have taken steps together to tighten licensing requirements as well as holding joint seminars for industry groups, publishing due diligence guidance to raise industry awareness about transshipment risks, and cooperating on ongoing investigations.”[6]

報告似乎暗示憂慮有人利用香港購買美國敏感軍事產品,因為報告指出,有別於中國內地,香港有權透過商貿途徑購買受管制的美國戰略產品,現時美國政府與香港政府透過「藍燈最終用途監測計劃」確保符合《國際武器貿易條例》的商業銷售發牌條款,原文如下:

“Unlike Mainland China, Hong Kong is also eligible to receive controlled U.S. defense articles sold via direct commercial sale. The Department of State, which licenses commercial sales of such articles under the International Traffic in Arms Regulations, ensures compliance via its Blue Lantern end-use monitoring program, and works with the Hong Kong government to reduce the risk of diversion.”[6]

當兩份文件一併閱讀,不難發現美國政府認為香港在處理美國的出口管制問題上並未符合美國的相關規定,尤其是關於落實聯合國安理會的議決及有關軍事產品的管制出現不符美國的要求,因而提出以上的多項建議。由於事態發展可能涉及香港在美中貿易戰和重大民事及軍事產品的貿易管制事宜上的漏洞,並不單單關於中英聯合聲明在香港的落實與否,因此,會否觸發美國啟動終止美港政策法視乎美中貿易戰的發展和香港政府在美中貿易戰中所擔當的角色。

 

參考
[1] USCC (2018) Chapter 3 Section 4 China and Hong Kong, 2018 REPORT TO CONGRESS of the U.S.-CHINA ECONOMIC AND SECURITY REVIEW COMMISSION, Nov 14, 2018
[2] 眾新聞 (2018) 美國報告指中國侵蝕香港 列六調查結果三建議 倡評估中港同列一關稅區,11月15日。
[3] USC (1992) 22 USC Ch. 66: US-HK Policy.
[4] 工業貿易署 (2009) 戰略貿易管制通告第3/2009號:從事美國來源戰略物品進出口的商號須注意要項 –根據美國出口管制規例,中國內地和香港被視為不同的目的地。在某些情況下,美國對輸往香港的貨物實施簽證豁免,但對再轉口輸往中國內地的相同貨物,卻要求商號持有美國個別出口簽證。在另一些情況下,獲美國批准以個別出口簽證輸往香港的貨物,並不准許轉口往中國內地。即使貨物是供香港公司在內地的附屬公司∕業務∕相聯公司使用,此限制亦同樣適用。
[5] 工業貿易署 (2002) 香港對屬美國來源的數碼電腦所實施的簽證規定
[6] USDS (2018) Hong Kong Policy Act Report 2018, US Department of State, May 29, 2018.

作者網誌

發表意見